Radicalisation Research https://www.radicalisationresearch.org Wed, 27 May 2020 06:00:34 +0000 en-GB hourly 1 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/cropped-RR-Favicon3-32x32.png Radicalisation Research https://www.radicalisationresearch.org 32 32 The Cost of Defection: The Consequences of Quitting Al-Shabaab https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/taylor-the-cost-of-defection/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/taylor-the-cost-of-defection/#respond Wed, 27 May 2020 06:00:34 +0000 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5195 Journal abstract This study investigates defections from the Al-Shabaab insurgency in Somalia. Thirty-two disengaged Al-Shabaab combatants were interviewed about their motivations, grievances, needs, and challenges in relation to the recruitment,[...]

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Journal abstract

This study investigates defections from the Al-Shabaab insurgency in Somalia. Thirty-two disengaged Al-Shabaab combatants were interviewed about their motivations, grievances, needs, and challenges in relation to the recruitment, defection, and post-defection phases. This paper focuses on post-defection challenges, where we found the primary concern to be lack of personal security. Without adequate security, disengaged combatants are vulnerable to being hunted and killed by Al-Shabaab. This significant threat discourages further mass and individual defections. We also found that disengaged combatants joined and defected out of religious zeal, to fight for what they believed to be a holy Islamic cause. This same zeal led them to defect, as they came to believe Al-Shabaab was not obeying the true Islamic faith. Indiscriminate killing by Al-Shabaab disenchants its religiously pious members, creating an opportunity to encourage mass and individual defections. However, if disengaged combatants are not protected from retribution, defection will lose its appeal.

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Risk Factors for Terrorism: A Comparison of Family, Childhood, and Personality Risk Factors Among Iraqi Terrorists, Murderers, and Controls https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/dhumad-risk-factors-for-terrorism-2/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/dhumad-risk-factors-for-terrorism-2/#respond Mon, 25 May 2020 06:00:49 +0000 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5172 Journal abstract Terrorism represents a major threat to global security; however, psychosocial risk factors for terrorism are insufficiently explored in the literature. Using a cross-sectional design, we examined group differences[...]

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Journal abstract

Terrorism represents a major threat to global security; however, psychosocial risk factors for terrorism are insufficiently explored in the literature. Using a cross-sectional design, we examined group differences in family, childhood, and personality factors, and attitudes towards terrorism among individuals convicted of terrorism (n = 160); those convicted of murder (n = 65); and a control group (n = 88). Using regression models, we consequently analyzed the risk factors for group membership, with a focus on terrorism. Compared to controls, terrorists had higher odds of persistent childhood disobedience, a conduct disorder factor, and endorsing statements on the causes of and justifications for terrorism, but lower odds of harsh treatment as a child. Murderers had greater odds of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), of endorsing statements on the causes of and justifications for terrorism, but lower odds of being easily provoked and harsh treatment before age 15. Compared to murderers, terrorists had higher odds of endorsing statements on the causes of and justifications for terrorism, but lower odds of ASPD, having a family member murdered, and being easily provoked. Although psychosocial risk factors for terrorism overlap significantly with violent criminal behaviors, certain factors may help distinguish terrorists from other groups. These factors merit further investigation.

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ISIS Propaganda https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/baele-isis-propaganda/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/baele-isis-propaganda/#respond Fri, 22 May 2020 06:00:39 +0000 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5178 Publisher’s description This book offers a comprehensive overview and analysis of the Islamic State’s use of propaganda. Combining a range of different theoretical perspectives from across the social sciences, and[...]

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Publisher’s description

This book offers a comprehensive overview and analysis of the Islamic State’s use of propaganda. Combining a range of different theoretical perspectives from across the social sciences, and using rigorous methods, the authors trace the origins of the Islamic State’s message, laying bare the strategic logic guiding its evolution, examining each of its multi-media components, and showing how these elements work together to radicalize audiences’ worldviews. This volume highlights the challenges that this sort of “full-spectrum propaganda” raises for counter terrorism forces. It is not only a one-stop resource for any analyst of IS and Salafi-jihadism, but also a rich contribution to the study of text and visual propaganda, radicalization and political violence, and international security.

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‘Boosting Resilience’ and ‘Safeguarding Youngsters at Risk’: Critically Examining the European Commission’s Educational Responses to Radicalization and Violent Extremism https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/christodoulou-boosting-resilience/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/christodoulou-boosting-resilience/#respond Wed, 20 May 2020 06:00:32 +0000 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5176 Journal abstract Terrorism represents a major threat to global security; however, psychosocial risk factors for terrorism are insufficiently explored in the literature. Using a cross-sectional design, we examined group differences[...]

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Journal abstract

Terrorism represents a major threat to global security; however, psychosocial risk factors for terrorism are insufficiently explored in the literature. Using a cross-sectional design, we examined group differences in family, childhood, and personality factors, and attitudes towards terrorism among individuals convicted of terrorism (n = 160); those convicted of murder (n = 65); and a control group (n = 88). Using regression models, we consequently analyzed the risk factors for group membership, with a focus on terrorism. Compared to controls, terrorists had higher odds of persistent childhood disobedience, a conduct disorder factor, and endorsing statements on the causes of and justifications for terrorism, but lower odds of harsh treatment as a child. Murderers had greater odds of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), of endorsing statements on the causes of and justifications for terrorism, but lower odds of being easily provoked and harsh treatment before age 15. Compared to murderers, terrorists had higher odds of endorsing statements on the causes of and justifications for terrorism, but lower odds of ASPD, having a family member murdered, and being easily provoked. Although psychosocial risk factors for terrorism overlap significantly with violent criminal behaviors, certain factors may help distinguish terrorists from other groups. These factors merit further investigation.

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Measuring Radicalisation: Risk Assessment Conceptualisations and Practice in England and Wales https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/knudsen-measuring-radicalisation/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/knudsen-measuring-radicalisation/#respond Mon, 18 May 2020 06:00:46 +0000 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5169 Journal abstract Individual ‘radicalisation’- extremism- and terrorism-related risk assessment tools have become increasingly central instruments of counter-terrorism. The scholarship on such tools, however, is still its infancy, and remains concentrated[...]

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Journal abstract

Individual ‘radicalisation’- extremism- and terrorism-related risk assessment tools have become increasingly central instruments of counter-terrorism. The scholarship on such tools, however, is still its infancy, and remains concentrated on methodological issues and on identifying the ‘best’ indicator list for carrying out assessments. This article takes a different approach, and examines England and Wales’ Extremism Risk Guidance (ERG22+) and Vulnerability Assessment Framework (VAF), concentrating on the 22 risk indicators that both tools share, and their current uses in counter-terrorism. The article explores the conceptualisations of ‘radicalisation’ that emerges from the tools’ indicators and from their actual uses at two different ‘ends’ of England and Wales’ counter-terrorism system; to assess sentenced terrorism offenders in prison, and to assess non-criminal individuals referred over concerns over their possible ‘radicalisation’. The article hence offers both a conceptual clarification of the ideas of ‘radicalisation’ underpinning counter-terrorism policies in England and Wales, and reflections on the operational utility of the present use of the ERG and VAF indicators. While not rejecting the possible value of specialised terrorism-related individual risk assessment tools, the article finds that the conceptualisations underpinning the tools’ indicators and their use make their present counter-terrorism roles questionable.

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Handbook of Terrorism and Counter Terrorism Post 9/11 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/jones-handbook-of-terrorism/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/jones-handbook-of-terrorism/#respond Fri, 15 May 2020 06:00:37 +0000 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5174 Publisher’s description The events of 9/11 gave rise to a new epoch in world history. This Handbook examines how the world order and our understanding of war and peace has[...]

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Publisher’s description

The events of 9/11 gave rise to a new epoch in world history. This Handbook examines how the world order and our understanding of war and peace has been transformed since the global war on terror began.

Bringing together expert commentators and academics from Asia, US, Europe and the Middle East, the Handbook of Terrorism and Counter Terrorism Post 9/11 assesses regional responses to terrorism and evaluates the emergence of new threats. This timely reflection on the consequences of the global war on terror considers the future of asymmetric conflict in the context of the fourth industrial revolution, and the evolution of cyberwarfare.

Providing an analysis of terrorism since 2001, from Al-Qaeda to Daesh, and a critical evaluation of counter terrorism and counter insurgency, this Handbook is an essential primer for students, at all levels, researching terrorism, insurgency, global warfare and international relations. It will also benefit defence and security personnel enrolled on postgraduate courses in military academies.

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Sometimes they come back: responding to American foreign fighter returnees and other Elusive threats https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/sometimes-they-come-back-responding-to-american-foreign-fighter-returnees-and-other-elusive-threats/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/sometimes-they-come-back-responding-to-american-foreign-fighter-returnees-and-other-elusive-threats/#respond Wed, 13 May 2020 06:00:01 +0000 https://radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5166 Journal abstract Much has been made of the threat of battle hardened jihadis from Islamist insurgencies, especially Syria. But do Americans who return home after gaining experience fighting abroad pose[...]

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Journal abstract

Much has been made of the threat of battle hardened jihadis from Islamist insurgencies, especially Syria. But do Americans who return home after gaining experience fighting abroad pose a greater risk than homegrown jihadi militants with no such experience? Using updated data covering 1990–2017, this study shows that the presence of a returnee decreases the likelihood that an executed plot will cause mass casualties. Plots carried out with American returnees from Islamist insurgencies abroad also decrease the likelihood that a plot will come to fruition. The presence of a known foreign fighter increases the likelihood of detection and disruption by law enforcement officials. These data also show successful attacks by any but lone-actors are becoming increasingly rare. However, attacks planned and executed by close-family members are the exception to the general rule.

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Preventing Radicalization in the UK: Expanding the Knowledge-Base on the Channel Programme https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/preventing-radicalization-in-the-uk-expanding-the-knowledge-base-on-the-channel-programme/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/preventing-radicalization-in-the-uk-expanding-the-knowledge-base-on-the-channel-programme/#respond Mon, 11 May 2020 06:00:23 +0000 https://radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5162 Journal abstract The Channel programme is part of the Prevent Strategy, one of the four strands of the UK counter-terrorism strategy known as CONTEST. While the programme has been running[...]

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Journal abstract

The Channel programme is part of the Prevent Strategy, one of the four strands of the UK counter-terrorism strategy known as CONTEST. While the programme has been running since 2007 and thousands of purportedly ‘vulnerable’ individuals are referred to the programme each year, there are still gaps in public knowledge about the programme, and this article seeks to fill some of those gaps while raising issues to consider in the future. With empirical data from interviews with individuals who have worked on the Channel programme, issues discussed include the type of individuals who are placed onto the programme, the suitability of intervention providers who aim to assist these vulnerable individuals, and the vital role of schools and the community in the success of the programme. The way in which the programme is designed and framed is of vital importance, as the mechanisms by which a deradicalization programme should work are very different from those which a counter-radicalization programme should employ. Finally suggestions are made for future empirical work in order to be able to understand and evaluate Channel.

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In Limited Demand: The Other Foreign Volunteers in the Syrian Civil War https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/in-limited-demand-the-other-foreign-volunteers-in-the-syrian-civil-war/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/in-limited-demand-the-other-foreign-volunteers-in-the-syrian-civil-war/#respond Fri, 08 May 2020 06:00:15 +0000 https://radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5160 Journal abstract The wars in Syria and Iraq attracted about 45,000 individuals from outside the arenas. Most joined the Islamic State, but interestingly, other prominent armed groups showed less interest[...]

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Terrorism and Political Violence
Journal abstract

The wars in Syria and Iraq attracted about 45,000 individuals from outside the arenas. Most joined the Islamic State, but interestingly, other prominent armed groups showed less interest in foreign volunteers. This paper introduces the Demand for Foreign Volunteers Theory (DFVT) to explain the diverging choices Jabhat al-Nusra, Ahrar al-Sham, and the People’s Protection Units made. The theory links four variables that shape groups’ positions: political considerations, operational needs, organizational capacity and ideational fit. Both operational and political considerations emphasize the motivation for using foreign volunteers, though the two are not equally important; when they conflict, political considerations take priority. Organizational capacity, on the other hand, determines a group’s ability to translate need into action, serving as a necessary—but insufficient—condition for foreign mobilization. Finally, ideational factors, specifically a group’s identity and ideology, determine the pool of potential recruits. The case studies show that political considerations made all three actors cautious about recruiting foreign fighters, though these considerations differed between groups. Ultimately, despite the availability of sufficient organizational capacity, all groups found it risky and even undesirable.

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Detecting Future ‘Marawis’: Considering Alternative Indicators for Assessing the Potential for New Manifestations of Violent Extremism in Mindanao https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/franco-detecting-future-marawis/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/franco-detecting-future-marawis/#respond Wed, 06 May 2020 06:00:40 +0000 https://radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5158 Journal abstract The 2017 Battle for Marawi was the proverbial perfect storm—the Maute Group (MG) and its allies were opportunistic actors who exploited the violent milieu provided by the city.[...]

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perspectives-on-terrorism-10-5
Journal abstract
The 2017 Battle for Marawi was the proverbial perfect storm—the Maute Group (MG) and its allies were
opportunistic actors who exploited the violent milieu provided by the city. Marawi’s prevailing insecurity, its built environment, and alienated population coalesced into a setting conducive for the protracted battle. What are the potential indicators that could detect future ‘Marawis’? This article highlights the need to identify alternative measures to detect sources of violent extremism in Mindanao. Greater foresight could be obtained by observing proxy indicators such as the responsiveness of local governments, poverty levels, and the effectiveness of educational institutions. Based on field visits conducted for this article, the hinterlands of Maguindanao may be the most likely enclave for new MG-style groups.

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Evaluating interventions to disengage extremist offenders: a study of the proactive integrated support model (PRISM) https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/cherney-evaluating-interventions-to-disengage-extremist-offenders/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/cherney-evaluating-interventions-to-disengage-extremist-offenders/#respond Mon, 04 May 2020 06:00:04 +0000 https://radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5153 Journal abstract The literature recognises that the evaluation of interventions to counter violent extremism (CVE) has been neglected. This paper fills this gap by providing results from a study of[...]

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Journal abstract
The literature recognises that the evaluation of interventions to counter violent extremism (CVE) has been neglected. This paper fills this gap by providing results from a study of a disengagement programme in the Australian state of New South Wales. The Proactive Integrated Support Model (PRISM) is a pilot intervention delivered by Corrective Services NSW aimed at prison inmates who have a conviction for terrorism or have been identified as at risk of radicalisation. PRISM is delivered by a team of allied health staff and a Religious Support Officer who work with other stakeholders and professionals. This paper looks at early results of the PRISM intervention focusing on a range of issues, which include client engagement and the content of intervention plans, self-reported motivations to participate in the intervention, benefits of participation, tackling the ideological component of violent extremism, connection to the community corrections context, and implementation challenges. Data is derived from interviews with programme staff, corrective services personnel and also clients of the intervention (i.e. convicted terrorist and radicalised inmates and parolees). Results are linked to existing literature on disengagement and implications for CVE programme evaluation are highlighted. Limitations in the study design are acknowledged.

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Online Deceptions: Renegotiating Gender Boundaries on ISIS Telegram https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/criezis-online-deceptions-renegotiating-gender-boundaries-on-isis-telegram/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/criezis-online-deceptions-renegotiating-gender-boundaries-on-isis-telegram/#respond Fri, 01 May 2020 06:00:47 +0000 https://radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5151 Journal abstract This resarch note examines the ways in which Islamic State supporters on Telegram, an encrypted messaging app, renegotiate gender boundaries. The introduction positions receptions of female ISIS accounts[...]

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perspectives-on-terrorism-10-5

Journal abstract
This resarch note examines the ways in which Islamic State supporters on Telegram, an encrypted messaging app, renegotiate gender boundaries. The introduction positions receptions of female ISIS accounts in the online space within the context of the roles that women are expected to fill and ISIS’s tentative acceptance of women fighting on the battlefield. An overview of Telegram gender social norms is provided before discussing the methodology used to gather supporting archival data to analyze the renegotiation of gender boundaries on Telegram. This section is followed by an analysis of a case study that considers the wider implications of what this says about women’s agency and involvement in terrorist groups online. The conclusion addresses the policy implications of possible shifts in gender social norms and the shape that women’s engagement in violent jihadist groups might take in the future.

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Diverting young men from gangs: a qualitative evaluation https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/boulton-diverting-young-men-from-gangs/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/boulton-diverting-young-men-from-gangs/#respond Wed, 29 Apr 2020 06:00:06 +0000 https://radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5147 Journal abstract Purpose Serious organised crime (SOC) costs the UK billions of pounds every year and is associated with significant negative health, social and well-being outcomes. The purpose of this[...]

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Journal abstract

Purpose
Serious organised crime (SOC) costs the UK billions of pounds every year and is associated with significant negative health, social and well-being outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate whether young people can be diverted from involvement in SOC using preventive intervention approaches.
Design/methodology/approach
A qualitative thematic analysis was conducted on data collected from semi-structured interviews with practitioners involved in a six-month intervention which specifically aimed to divert “at risk” young people away from SOC involvement.
Findings
Themes arising from the analysis are: risk and vulnerability factors associated with young people involved in organised crime; what worked well during this intervention; what outcomes, both hard and soft, were generated; as well as, the specific challenges to the success of preventive programmes’ success.
Practical implications
Overall, the study highlights the problematic nature of diverting “at risk” youths from SOC and provides recommendations for future preventive intervention work in the field of SOC. Specifically, it suggests that longer-term interventions, targeted at younger children, may generate better behavioural outcomes if they focus on building trusting relationships with credible support workers (i.e. have lived experience of SOC).
Originality/value
With a growing body of evidence suggesting that young people are being increasingly exploited for organised criminal purposes, an approach which prevents involvement in SOC makes theoretical and economic sense. However, little research has empirically tested its utility in practice. This study seeks to address this gap.

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Sex and Terror: Is the Subordination of Women Associated with the Use of Terror? https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/hudson-sex-and-terror/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/hudson-sex-and-terror/#respond Mon, 27 Apr 2020 06:00:21 +0000 https://radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5145 Journal abstract The overwhelming percentage of the perpetrators of terrorism are male: is this noteworthy, or not? We believe that it is. More specifically, we believe there is a complex[...]

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Terrorism and Political Violence
Journal abstract
The overwhelming percentage of the perpetrators of terrorism are male: is this noteworthy, or not? We believe that it is. More specifically, we believe there is a complex mix of sex-linked grievance for men, sex-linked training for men, and sex-linked lack of voice for women that facilitates, and may even catalyze, the perpetration of terrorism. Without knowledge of those sex-linked pathways, we argue that efforts to counter terror are less effective than they might be. We first survey the literature on the causes of terrorism, as well as the literature linking inequality between the sexes to incidence of terrorism. After laying this foundation, we next contribute a theoretical framework linking the subordination of women to the incentivizing of specifically male engagement in terrorism, and then test that framework through aggregate statistical testing on a sample of 155 nations for a variety of non-state and state terrorism outcome variables. The subordination of women, as also mechanisms of marriage market obstruction including brideprice, prove highly significant and with notable effect sizes even after controlling for several alternative explanatory variables. Finally, we probe implications of our findings for efforts to counter terrorism and violent extremism.

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Ideological Transmission in Extremist Contexts: Towards a Framework of How Ideas Are Shared https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/knott-ideological-transmission-in-extremist-contexts/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/knott-ideological-transmission-in-extremist-contexts/#respond Fri, 24 Apr 2020 06:00:32 +0000 https://radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5143 Journal abstract Despite their centrality in academic and policy debates about radicalization and political violence, ideologies have been conceived narrowly, as cognitive, top-down, coherent and systematic. In general, those who[...]

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politics religion & ideology

Journal abstract
Despite their centrality in academic and policy debates about radicalization and political violence, ideologies have been conceived narrowly, as cognitive, top-down, coherent and systematic. In general, those who have used the concept of ideology have failed to draw on ideological theory or on recent insights about its practice and embodiment, or location in space and time. Our interest is less in the content of ideology than in how it is shared by those for whom it matters. We offer an interpretive framework, based on six key questions about ideological transmission: What ideas, beliefs, and values are shared, how and why, by whom, and in which spatial and temporary contexts? Following a discussion about the methodological pros and cons of the framework, it is tested on a series of interviews with members of Aum Shinrikyo, the Japanese religious group responsible for the Tokyo subway attack in 1995. We assess the strengths and limitations of the framework for analysing the various dimensions of ideological transmission before considering what it adds to our understanding of the relationship between extreme beliefs and violent behaviour.

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Learning in a Double Loop: The Strategic Transformation of Al-Qaeda https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/furstenberg-learning-in-a-double-loop/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/furstenberg-learning-in-a-double-loop/#respond Wed, 22 Apr 2020 06:00:56 +0000 https://radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5139 Journal abstract Like any type of organization, terrorist groups learn from their own experiences as well as those of others. These processes of organizational learning have, however, been poorly understood[...]

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perspectives-on-terrorism-10-5
Journal abstract
Like any type of organization, terrorist groups learn from their own experiences as well as those of others. These processes of organizational learning have, however, been poorly understood so far, especially regarding deep strategic changes. In this Research Note, we apply a concept developed to understand learning of business organizations to recent transformations of jihadist groups. The question we want to shed light on using this approach is whether, and in which ways, terrorist groups are able to question not only their immediate modus operandi, but also the fundamental assumptions their struggle is built on. More specifically, we focus the inquiry on the development of the Al-Qaeda network. Despite its acknowledged penchant for learning, the ability of the jihadists to transform on a deeper level has often been denied. We seek to reassess these claims from the perspective of a double-loop learning approach by tracing the strategic evolution of Al-Qaeda and its eventual breakaway faction, Hay’at Tahrir al-Sham (HTS).

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Losing Mood(s): Examining Jihadi Supporters’ Responses to ISIS’ Territorial Decline https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/groups/masse-losing-moods-examining-jihadi-supporters-responses/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/groups/masse-losing-moods-examining-jihadi-supporters-responses/#respond Mon, 20 Apr 2020 06:00:38 +0000 https://radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5133 Journal abstract The fall of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria has raised a number of questions over the future of the organization and the potential threat it might[...]

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Terrorism and Political Violence
Journal abstract
The fall of the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria has raised a number of questions over the future of the organization and the potential threat it might continue to pose. While some commenters argue that the demise of the Caliphate will reduce ISIS’s global appeal, others have stressed the role that jihadi supporters may play in perpetuating ISIS’s ideological legacy. Yet, little is known on how supporters have responded to recent changes in circumstances. Employing a cognitive dissonance approach, this contribution examines the implications of ISIS’s defeat on twelve jihadi supporters’ commitment. It shows that while a minority of supporters have disengaged, the majority have remained committed to the group. While these differences stress the influence of personal situational factors on supporters’ responses, the data at the same time indicates that dissonance has preceded in some cases ISIS’s defeat. The contribution overall shows that integrating cognitive dissonance theory to the study of radicalization and terrorism can provide a more nuanced understanding of how individuals renegotiate the nature of their involvement in extremism when confronted by changes in circumstances.

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The Satanic Temple: Secularist Activism and Occulture in the American Political Landscape https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/white-the-satanic-temple/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/white-the-satanic-temple/#respond Fri, 17 Apr 2020 06:00:33 +0000 https://radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5135 Journal abstract This article explores the development and ideology of The Satanic Temple,against the background of current American politics. The Satanic Temple isa recent addition to the Satanic milieu, and[...]

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Journal abstract
This article explores the development and ideology of The Satanic Temple,against the background of current American politics. The Satanic Temple isa recent addition to the Satanic milieu, and is positioned here as a form of”rationalist” Satanism that draws on the figure of Satan as a symbol of rebellion.The discussion follows the emergence of The Satanic Temple and itsintroduction to the mainstream media around 2012, the influences of esoteric,feminist, and secularist ideas on the group, and its present manifestation as a politically engaged “occulture.”

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The Threat of Transnational Terrorist Groups in Kashmir https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/pandya-the-threat-of-transnational-terrorist-groups-in-kashmir/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/pandya-the-threat-of-transnational-terrorist-groups-in-kashmir/#respond Wed, 15 Apr 2020 06:00:14 +0000 https://radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5130 Journal abstract The present analysis is based mainly on personal local observations in Kashmir. The situation on the ground is vulnerable and can facilitate the penetration of transnational terrorist groups[...]

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perspectives-on-terrorism-10-5
Journal abstract
The present analysis is based mainly on personal local observations in Kashmir. The situation on the ground is vulnerable and can facilitate the penetration of transnational terrorist groups (TTGs) in Kashmir as parts of society are going through intense radicalization. Militancy, in ideology and tactics, is increasingly assuming SyriaIraq-Afghanistan style features, with IED attacks and suicide bombing becoming more widespread. New terrorist organizations like ISJK (Islamic State of Jammu and Kashmir), and AGuH (Ansar Ghazwat-ul-Hind) fight for the idea of an Islamic Kashmir. The conflict is passing into a new phase of internationalization, and the penetration of TTGs is a part of that process. The recent abolition of Kashmir’s special status, addressed in a Postscript, is likely to strengthen the alienation and, hence, create enabling conditions for TTGs to establish a firm foothold in Kashmir.

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Countering right-wing extremism: lessons from Germany and Norway https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/countering-right-wing-extremism-lessons-from-germany-and-norway/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/countering-right-wing-extremism-lessons-from-germany-and-norway/#respond Fri, 10 Apr 2020 06:00:32 +0000 https://radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5118 Journal Article The growing threat of right-wing extremism (RWE) creates challenges for countering violent extremism (CVE) strategies. For countries like Australia with little historical background in countering RWE, there is[...]

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Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism
Journal Article
The growing threat of right-wing extremism (RWE) creates challenges for countering violent extremism (CVE) strategies. For countries like Australia with little historical background in countering RWE, there is a need to update and adapt CVE programs that were developed in response to homegrown Islamist extremism. In Western Europe and Scandinavia, the reverse is often true: a longer history of addressing the threat from neo-Nazi and ethno-nationalist groups means their CVE programs were designed originally for RWE, and have only since been adapted in response to the Islamist threat. Knowledge about what constitutes effective CVE remains scarce, but there is sufficient evidence to suggest that these different historical contexts impact on the design and success of contemporary CVE efforts. Given this, the paper asks what researchers and policymakers might learn from comparative experiences with countering RWE. It conducts case studies of CVE efforts in Germany and Norway, which both have a longer history of countering RWE. Each case study examines these countries’ CVE efforts in historical context. The paper concludes by offering some lessons and principles that may be useful for other countries seeking to counter RWE.

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Anti-government rage: understanding, identifying and responding to the sovereign citizen movement in Australia https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/baldino-anti-government-rage/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/baldino-anti-government-rage/#respond Wed, 08 Apr 2020 06:00:02 +0000 https://radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5113 Journal Abstract Sovereign citizens, who do not believe they are subject to law, have been identified as a risk for police and government officials as well as a potential terrorist[...]

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Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism
Journal Abstract
Sovereign citizens, who do not believe they are subject to law, have been identified as a risk for police and government officials as well as a potential terrorist threat. As such, while it is important to view radicalisation as multi-causal, some behavioural markers may indicate sovereign citizen inclinations and help to direct policy attention to the early stages of risk and radicalisation towards violence. This article seeks to identify sovereign ideology, social drivers and tactics to help to avert the potential consolidation and advance of vulnerabilities and risk factors under certain conditions. Further, it intends to build policy frameworks towards supporting individual resilience to extremist influence and the development of related prevention programs by evaluating whether CVE activity in Australia – especially if adopted from responses such as religious terrorism – is ‘fit for purpose’ in countering intricate anti-government extensions of extremism.

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Deradicalization and Disengagement: Exit Programs in Norway and Sweden and Addressing Neo-Nazi Extremism https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/daugherty-deradicalization-and-disengagement/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/daugherty-deradicalization-and-disengagement/#respond Fri, 20 Mar 2020 07:00:14 +0000 https://radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5107 Journal abstract Though the study of deradicalization is relatively new, in the last several decades many countries have undertaken the task of building programs within the space to address the[...]

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journal-for-deradicalization_blog-235x350Journal abstract
Though the study of deradicalization is relatively new, in the last several decades many countries have undertaken the task of building programs within the space to address the growing threat of extremism and radicalization – both from a religious and political perspective. This paper examines the birth of deradicalization programs in Norway and Sweden, which were two of the first – if not the first – countries to create holistic programmatic approaches to tackling disengagement and deradicalization. Both of these programs sprang up in the mid-to late 1990s and were tasked with growing far-right extremist groups. The paper outlines the opportunities and challenges that facet of the program presented and if and how they were able to adjust. Finally, the paper looks at the data collected by each program, specifically on the number of their participants and if they remained separate from radical ideologies to determine if the programs were success and similar programs could be replicated and expect similar successes. With the resurgence of white power and Neo-Nazi extremism across Europe and the United States, a consideration of the programs developed in Sweden and Norway two decades ago may provide a replicable template for current issues with extremism.

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Domestic terrorism and hate crimes: legal definitions and media framing of mass shootings in the United States https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/taylor-domestic-terrorism-and-hate-crimes/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/taylor-domestic-terrorism-and-hate-crimes/#respond Wed, 18 Mar 2020 09:00:45 +0000 https://radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5104 Journal abstract Identifying a criminal act as terrorism is a complicated task, influenced by strict legal definitions and public perceptions. While law enforcement must adhere to the criminal code in[...]

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Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter TerrorismJournal abstract
Identifying a criminal act as terrorism is a complicated task, influenced by strict legal definitions and public perceptions. While law enforcement must adhere to the criminal code in prosecuting violent extremist crime as terrorism, politicians, commentators and the media can symbolically label these acts as constituting a range of offences, regardless of whether they fit within legal definitions. Such disparity was evident in the aftermath of the 2015 Charleston church mass shooting when a white supremacist gunned down nine African Americans with the intention of sparking a race war. FBI Director James Comey was hesitant to apply the terrorism label claiming that it was not a political act and therefore did not classify as terrorism, while U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder had no reservations in labelling the crime an ‘act of terrorism’ (Norris, 2017, pp. 265–266). This paper explores two significant factors that contribute to the conceptual ambiguity surrounding far-right violent extremism as terrorism: the legal double standards in the treatment of ‘domestic’ terrorists under U.S. federal law, and the reinforcement of these double standards within the mass media.

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Reviewing the Role on the Internet in Radicalization Processes https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/odag-reviewing-the-role-on-the-internet-in-radicalization-processes/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/odag-reviewing-the-role-on-the-internet-in-radicalization-processes/#respond Tue, 10 Mar 2020 08:46:55 +0000 https://radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5102 Journal abstract This review presents the existing research on the role of the Internet in radicalization processes. Using a systematic literature search strategy, our paper yields 88 studies on the[...]

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journal-for-deradicalization_blog-235x350Journal abstract
This review presents the existing research on the role of the Internet in radicalization processes. Using a systematic literature search strategy, our paper yields 88 studies on the role of the Internet in a) right-wing extremism and b) radical jihadism. Available studies display a predominant interest in the characteristics of radical websites and a remarkable absence of a user-centred perspective. They show that extremist groups make use of the Internet to spread right wing or jihadist ideologies, connect like-minded others in echo chambers and cloaked websites, and address particularly marginalized individuals of a society, with specific strategies for recruitment. Existing studies have thus far not sufficiently examined the users of available sites, nor have they studied the causal mechanisms that unfold at the intersection between the Internet and its users. The present review suggests avenues for future research, drawing on media and violence research and research on social identity and deindividuation effects in computer-mediated communication.

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Australian right wing extremist ideology: exploring narratives of nostalgia and nemesis https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/campion-australian-right-wing-extremist-ideology-exploring-narratives-of-nostalgia-and-nemesis/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/campion-australian-right-wing-extremist-ideology-exploring-narratives-of-nostalgia-and-nemesis/#respond Wed, 04 Mar 2020 09:10:53 +0000 https://radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5099 Journal abstract Australian Right Wing Extremism (RWE) ideology can be identified by ethnocentric and structural discourses, with prominent narratives of racial identification and threat articulation. This study has examined nine[...]

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Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter TerrorismJournal abstract

Australian Right Wing Extremism (RWE) ideology can be identified by ethnocentric and structural discourses, with prominent narratives of racial identification and threat articulation. This study has examined nine RWE manifestos and collated statements of Australian authorship, both historical and contemporary, to gain a qualitative understanding of discourses, narratives and axiomatic beliefs within the heterogeneous movement, in order to identify the ideological contour of Australia’s extreme right. It found that ethnocentric discourses assigned positive value to identity narratives regarding white identity and heritage and seek to proscribe the ideal society based on nostalgic and imagined identity constructs. Societal narratives situate gender roles within the ambit of a failing and degenerate society. Threat narratives assigned negative values to designated out-groups, while concurrently arguing white victimhood. Structural discourses manifested to a lesser extent, demonstrating opposition to political concepts like democracy and equality, and capitalist economic systems. Ethnocentric and structural discourses combine to elevate white identity, enforce notions of threat, and romanticise a nostalgic and imagined existence to which extremists seek a return.

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