Radicalisation Research https://www.radicalisationresearch.org Fri, 18 Sep 2020 06:00:32 +0000 en-GB hourly 1 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/cropped-RR-Favicon3-32x32.png Radicalisation Research https://www.radicalisationresearch.org 32 32 Securitising education: an exploration of teachers’ attitudes and experiences regarding the implementation of the Prevent duty in sixth form colleges https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/moffat-securitising-education/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/moffat-securitising-education/#respond Fri, 18 Sep 2020 06:00:32 +0000 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5359 Journal abstract The government’s counterterrorism policy, known as CONTEST, has four components: Pursue, Protect, Prepare and Prevent. The Counterterrorism and Security Act in 2015 led to changes to Prevent by[...]

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critical studies on terrorismJournal abstract

The government’s counterterrorism policy, known as CONTEST, has four components: Pursue, Protect, Prepare and Prevent. The Counterterrorism and Security Act in 2015 led to changes to Prevent by placing a legal duty on frontline staff, such as teachers, to enact Prevent in schools and colleges. Currently, the impact of these changes is not well understood, and the present study explores the attitudes and experiences of sixth form college teachers regarding the implementation of the Prevent duty. Fourteen participants across three London colleges took part in semi-structured interviews regarding their training experiences, the implementation of the Prevent duty, knowledge about radicalisation and extremism, and teaching British values. Thematic analysis of the interview transcripts revealed five main themes: training experiences; reporting students; confidence; the association of Islam with Prevent; and protecting students. This study discusses possible changes to Prevent’s implementation in educational settings and the development of community out-reach programmes. In addition, it suggests future research directions, such as empirical research on the effectiveness of de-radicalisation programmes.

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“When ‘Childsplay’ Gets Lethal”: ‘Ludic Terrorism’ and its Ambivalent Relationship with Postmodernism https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/patterson-when-childsplay-gets-lethal/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/patterson-when-childsplay-gets-lethal/#respond Wed, 16 Sep 2020 06:00:32 +0000 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5356 Journal abstract The research note offers an intuitive insight into a peculiar type of terrorist behaviour. It does so by combining the concept of ‘ludic’ with terrorism, which is not[...]

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journal-for-deradicalization_blog-235x350Journal abstract

The research note offers an intuitive insight into a peculiar type of terrorist behaviour. It does so by combining the concept of ‘ludic’ with terrorism, which is not entirely new (see Shane McCorristine’s work on 19th century anarchism as ‘ludic terrorism’ and its representations in Edwardian literature). But the object of this work is to explore the ‘ludic’ concept both methodologically (by exposing the linkage between ‘ludic’ themes of playing, tricking and irony and the theory of postmodernism) and historically by highlighting two serious yet apparently unrelated mainstream cases – Anders Behring Breivik and Elliot Rodger. It is important to note that the study is multi-disciplinary by nature. It draws on philosophy and cultural theorists as well as novelists and film media in order to get to grips with real life traumas experienced by millions of human beings and externalise the dangerous alter egos and apocalyptic pipedreams which are born as a result.

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Muslim Student Radicalism and Self-Deradicalization in Indonesia https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/regions/sirry-muslim-student-radicalism/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/regions/sirry-muslim-student-radicalism/#respond Mon, 14 Sep 2020 06:00:57 +0000 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5354 Journal abstract In recent years, the phenomenon of religious radicalism has become alarming, including the increasing number of youth involved in violence and terrorism. The university has now become a[...]

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Journal abstract

In recent years, the phenomenon of religious radicalism has become alarming, including the increasing number of youth involved in violence and terrorism. The university has now become a significant environment for the spreading of radical ideology. In Indonesia, for example, students at seven prominent public universities have been significantly exposed to radical groups. This article discusses religious radicalism among such Muslim students, on the basis of research at these seven universities. It refers to these educated youth who have been radicalized as ‘newbies’, not only because they recently embraced a radical viewpoint, but also because they were easily deradicalized, that is, they left behind their newly embraced ideology. The article underlines how these youth were deradicalized as a result of their rejection of the dogmatic ideologies and practices of absolutist Islamic groups. It argues that there is no direct connection between religious radicalism and violent terrorism, and that radicalized youth have an opportunity to question the impact of their involvement in the radical networks on themselves and others and deradicalize themselves without necessarily ascribing to the kind of religious understanding promoted by the state.

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Counter-terrorism policing innovations in Turkey: a case study of Turkish National Police CVE experiment https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/san-counter-terrorism-policing/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/san-counter-terrorism-policing/#respond Fri, 11 Sep 2020 06:00:37 +0000 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5352 Journal abstract In recent years, many governments have introduced so-called ‘countering violent extremism’ (CVE) measures to promote terrorists’ and potential terrorists’ deradicalization and disengagement from terrorist activity. This paper analyses[...]

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Policing and SocietyJournal abstract

In recent years, many governments have introduced so-called ‘countering violent extremism’ (CVE) measures to promote terrorists’ and potential terrorists’ deradicalization and disengagement from terrorist activity. This paper analyses the potential contribution of CVE programmes to counter-terrorism policing through a case study of Turkey. Drawing on Turkish National Police data from a pilot project in the city of Adana, this study suggests that Turkish CVE measures showed promising results, despite Turkey’s history of deterrence-based, repressive, and militarised counter-terrorism policies. The Turkish CVE project pioneered a comprehensive approach to de-radicalisation and disengagement that addresses ideological, social, and practical motivations, and engages clients in every stage of the radicalisation continuum. The paper also analyses Turkey’s adoption and later abandonment of the CVE experiment to gauge the policy’s broader applicability. While other police forces could adopt the Turkish model, CVE programmes require a democratic political environment and commitment to negotiated resolution of political conflicts.

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Manufacturing Polarisation in Contemporary India: The Case of Identity Politics in Post-Left Bengal https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/nath-manufacturing-polarisation/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/nath-manufacturing-polarisation/#respond Wed, 09 Sep 2020 06:00:28 +0000 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5350 Journal abstract This article explores ethnographically the manufacturing of religious polarisation and violence in West Bengal, India. Since 2014, India has experienced a rise in religion-based identity conflict. Although West[...]

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Journal abstract

This article explores ethnographically the manufacturing of religious polarisation and violence in West Bengal, India. Since 2014, India has experienced a rise in religion-based identity conflict. Although West Bengal experienced riots during the partition of India, it remained unaffected during the subsequent three decades of Left rule. More recently, however, secular democratic forces have been marginalised and riot-like conflicts have emerged. We argue that identity consolidation in West Bengal is part of an increasing trend of religious polarisation in the country. To bridge the gap between scholarly discussions on the concepts of secularism and communalisation, the paper presents micro-narratives illuminating the background of religious polarisation and violence. We provide ethnographic details of the mechanisms by which religious identities are consolidated. With a case-based approach, this article unearths the mechanisms of identity-based polarisation, and its politicisation in a region which has not experienced this level of violence for several decades.

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The politics-violence frontier https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/frazer-the-politics-violence-frontier/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/frazer-the-politics-violence-frontier/#respond Mon, 07 Sep 2020 06:00:03 +0000 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5348 Journal abstract This article analyses how early twenty-first century political activists in Italy construct the frontier between politics and violence. It puts these constructions into the context of more conventionally[...]

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Journal abstract

This article analyses how early twenty-first century political activists in Italy construct the frontier between politics and violence. It puts these constructions into the context of more conventionally theoretical accounts of violence and politics. Analysis of internet discourse published by left/anarchist bloggers and group members focusses on how activists criticize the conventional view that electoral politics is non-violent, and endorse the view that violence is politics’ main means. This means that the role of violence in oppositional politics then has to be negotiated. Discourse analysis shows how ideas of resistance, and anti-state force, are articulated in such a way as to draw distinctions between us and them, and their politics and ours. The article discusses the significance of these articulations of the politics-violence distinction for the construction of political agency, and for the justification of forms of political action, seeking to show that boundary work is fundamental to political agency.

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The Practitioner’s Guide to the Galaxy – A Comparison of Risk Assessment Tools for Violent Extremism https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/the-practitioners-guide-to-the-galaxy-a-comparison-of-risk-assessment-tools-for-violent-extremism/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/the-practitioners-guide-to-the-galaxy-a-comparison-of-risk-assessment-tools-for-violent-extremism/#respond Fri, 04 Sep 2020 06:00:35 +0000 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5343 This paper critically compares seven widely used risk assessment tools for violent extremism, including the VERA-2R, the ERG 22+, the SQAT, the IR46, the RRAP, the Radar, and the VAF.[...]

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This paper critically compares seven widely used risk assessment tools for violent extremism, including the VERA-2R, the ERG 22+, the SQAT, the IR46, the RRAP, the Radar, and the VAF. For each risk assessment method, the authors (1) provide background information about its country of origin, the field of expertise/discipline within which they were created, their underlying methodology (theory or case-based), and the various ways these tools are structured; (2) describe the purpose of the risk assessment tools and their respective target audience(s); and (3) elaborate on the use (practical implications) of the tools. The objective is to enable policymakers and practitioners to better navigate the often muddy, copyrighted, and expensive waters of the world of risk assessment of violent extremism—as well as to facilitate their decision-making process when it comes to determining what approach is best suited to their needs.

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The Other Side of the Story: A qualitative study of the biographies of extremists and terrorists https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/the-other-side-of-the-story-a-qualitative-study-of-the-biographies-of-extremists-and-terrorists/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/the-other-side-of-the-story-a-qualitative-study-of-the-biographies-of-extremists-and-terrorists/#respond Wed, 02 Sep 2020 06:00:15 +0000 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5328 The events that happened in the last few years in conjunction with the international phenomenon of Islamist-jihadist terrorism once again have shifted the focus of attention more strongly to the[...]

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The events that happened in the last few years in conjunction with the international phenomenon of Islamist-jihadist terrorism once again have shifted the focus of attention more strongly to the motives behind terrorist acts, i.e. to the question, “Why?”. The fact that international terrorism seems to be
thriving in Germany, too, has been obvious at least since the conviction of the members of the socalled ‘Sauerland Group’. There is no doubt that under certain circumstances even individuals who have been brought up in Germany are ready and willing to embrace Islamist/jihadist interpretation options; but it is not only an Islamist or religiously – in the broadest sense of the word – motivated kind of extremism that arouses our interest: Considering the broad spectrum of politically motivated extremism and terrorism, it is society as a whole that is challenged. Before we can take up these challenges, we must first of all answer the crucial question, ‘What are the motives that lead terrorists
to commit their brutal acts’? Only if we shed light on their deeper motivation will we be able not only to react more appropriately but, above all, act in an adequately pro-active and pre-emptive manner.

This study entitled “Extremism – a biographical perspective” is based on a biographical approach to understanding its subjects’ life histories with a focus on the motives behind radicalisation and the corresponding use of extremist-motivated violence: Are some distinct biographical constellations and/or motivations – whatever their ideological origin – more likely than others to lead an individual towards extremism? What kind of lifeworlds do we see if we try to look at them from the extremists’ or terrorists’ own points of view?

The results presented in the book at hand are manifold, and if we want to tackle this phenomenon with a focus on crime prevention, the key finding is a challenging one as the psycho-social dynamics of the radicalisation careers of offenders with different extremist or terrorist backgrounds seem to have more in common than the respective ideological backgrounds of the different milieus would suggest. Or, in other words: We did not find any fundamental differences. In fact, the similarities between the individuals’ key motivational impetuses and trigger factors outnumber all visible manifestations that the various types of extremism can take.

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Handbook on the Management of Violent Extremist Prisoners and the Prevention of Radicalization to Violence in Prisons https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/uncategorized/unodc-handbook-on-the-management/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/uncategorized/unodc-handbook-on-the-management/#respond Fri, 28 Aug 2020 06:00:03 +0000 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5323 This Handbook is one of a series of tools developed by UNODC to support Member States in the implementation of the rule of law and the development of criminal justice[...]

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This Handbook is one of a series of tools developed by UNODC to support Member States in the implementation of the rule of law and the development of criminal justice reform. It is designed to be used by prison managers and prison staff, in particular, but will also be relevant for other actors involved in the criminal justice system, such as policymakers, legislators and members of non-governmental organizations. It can be used in a variety of contexts, both as a reference document and as the basis for staff training. While some elements of the Handbook may not be achievable immediately in some jurisdictions, particularly in post conflict situations, the Handbook provides national authorities with guidelines for the development of policies and protocols that meet international standards and good practice.

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Community reporting on violent extremism by “intimates”: emergent findings from international evidence https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/thomas-community-reporting/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/thomas-community-reporting/#respond Wed, 26 Aug 2020 06:00:25 +0000 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5335 Journal abstract To promote early intervention strategies, Countering/Preventing Violent Extremism (C/PVE) policies internationally seek to encourage community reporting by “intimates” about someone close to them engaging in terrorist planning. Yet[...]

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Critical Studies on TerrorismJournal abstract

To promote early intervention strategies, Countering/Preventing Violent Extremism (C/PVE) policies internationally seek to encourage community reporting by “intimates” about someone close to them engaging in terrorist planning. Yet historically, we have scant evidence around what either helps or hinders “intimates” to share concerns with authorities. We address that deficit here through a “state of the art” assessment of what we currently know about effective related C/PVE approaches to community reporting, based on key findings from a ground-breaking Australian study and its UK replication. The consistency of qualitative findings from nearly 100 respondents offers new paradigms for policy and practice.

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Recruitment and Radicalization among US Far-Right Terrorists https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/recruitment-and-radicalization-among-us-far-right-terrorists/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/recruitment-and-radicalization-among-us-far-right-terrorists/#respond Mon, 24 Aug 2020 06:00:39 +0000 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5331 This report presents findings from a two-year study, “Recruitment and Radicalization among US Far-Right Terrorists.” This investigation examines multiple aspects of recruitment and radicalization, such as the quality and quantity[...]

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This report presents findings from a two-year study, “Recruitment and Radicalization among US
Far-Right Terrorists.” This investigation examines multiple aspects of recruitment and radicalization,
such as the quality and quantity of exposure to right-wing ideologies prior to extremist involvement;
types of recruitment; pre-entry risk factors for extremist participation; and the extremists’ perception
about why he/she was unable to progress beyond the planning stages of a terror plot.

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The Forensic Psychologist’s Report Writing Guide https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/brown-forensic-psychologists-report/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/brown-forensic-psychologists-report/#respond Fri, 21 Aug 2020 06:00:24 +0000 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5319 Publisher’s description The Forensic Psychologist’s Reporting Writing Guide is the first book to provide both student trainees and practitioners with best practice guidance for one of the core skills of[...]

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Publisher’s description

The Forensic Psychologist’s Reporting Writing Guide is the first book to provide both student trainees and practitioners with best practice guidance for one of the core skills of their role.

Written and edited by an international range of experts from the UK, North America and Australasia, it provides clear advice on a range of assessments, from psychometric tests to personality functioning, and includes real-life examples to illustrate key points. Uniquely, the book also offers guidance on the range of different client groups that forensic psychologists work with across both civil and legal contexts, including juveniles, female clients, couples and those with cognitive impairments. From core principles to writing style to key issues, each chapter also includes a checklist of advice and further reading.

Comprehensive and practical, The Forensic Psychologist’s Reporting Writing Guide is a user-friendly companion to this critical and often overlooked skill, and will be essential reading for both neophyte and experienced forensic psychologists alike.

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Women of the Right: Comparisons and Interplay Across Borders https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/blee-women-of-the-right/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/blee-women-of-the-right/#respond Wed, 19 Aug 2020 06:00:04 +0000 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5311 Publisher’s description In Women of the Right, Kathleen M. Blee and Sandra McGee Deutsch bring together a groundbreaking collection of essays examining women in right-wing politics across the world, from[...]

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Publisher’s description

In Women of the Right, Kathleen M. Blee and Sandra McGee Deutsch bring together a groundbreaking collection of essays examining women in right-wing politics across the world, from the early twentieth-century white Afrikaner movement in South Africa to the supporters of Sarah Palin today. The volume introduces a truly global perspective on how women matter in the national and transnational links and exchanges of rightist politics. Suitable for classroom use, it sets a new agenda for scholarship on women on the right. Aside from the editors, the contributors are Nancy Aguirre, Karla J. Cunningham, Kirsten Delegard, Kathleen M. Fallon, Kate Hallgren, Randolph Hollingsworth, Jill Irvine, Vandana Joshi, Carol S. Lilly, Annette Linden, Julie Moreau, Margaret Power, Mariela Rubinzal, Daniella Sarnoff, Ronnee Schreiber, Meera Sehgal, Louise Vincent, and Veronica A. Wilson.

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Victims and Perpetrators of Terrorism: Exploring Identities, Roles and Narratives https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/lynch-victims-and-perpetrators/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/lynch-victims-and-perpetrators/#respond Mon, 17 Aug 2020 06:00:46 +0000 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5307 Publisher’s description While the perpetrators of political violence have been the subject of significant academic research, victims of terrorism and political violence have rarely featured in this landscape. In an[...]

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Publisher’s description

While the perpetrators of political violence have been the subject of significant academic research, victims of terrorism and political violence have rarely featured in this landscape. In an effort to capture the vast complexity of terrorism, and to widen the scope of the agenda that informs terrorism research, this book presents a series of analyses that examines the role of the perpetrators, the experience of the victims, the public and media perceptions of both, and given the inherent intricacy of the phenomenon, how we might think about engaging with perpetrators in an effort to prevent further violence. By considering the role of the many actors who are central to our understanding and framing of terrorism and political violence, this book highlights the need to focus on how the interactivity of individuals and contexts have implications for the emergence, maintenance and termination of campaigns of political violence. The volume aims to understand not only how former perpetrators and victims can work in preventing violence in a number of contexts but, more broadly, the narratives that support and oppose violence, the construction of victimisation, the politicisation of victimhood, the justifications for violence and the potential for preventing and encouraging desistance from violence.

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Violent Extremism in the 21st Century; International Perspectives https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/andersen-violent-extremism/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/andersen-violent-extremism/#respond Fri, 14 Aug 2020 06:00:09 +0000 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5302 Publisher’s description This anthology provides insights into processes of violent extremism, both locally and globally, questioning how and why it arises and what can be done about it. The book[...]

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Publisher’s description

This anthology provides insights into processes of violent extremism, both locally and globally, questioning how and why it arises and what can be done about it. The book will be relevant for policy makers, post-graduates and researchers in the social and political sciences, religious studies, law, psychology, medicine and education, as well as practitioners in direct contact with targeted individuals or vulnerable groups. The anthology contributes models, analyses and practical tools helpful for first-liners who are well placed to both see and prevent incipient extremism and to rehabilitate: to aid those who have been extremists in returning to society and finding a life worth living. In addition to chapters focusing on work in Norway, Denmark and Sweden, there are contributions from North America, Africa, Australia, the Middle East and Europe.

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Protective factors against extremism and violent radicalization: A systematic review of research. https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/radicalisation/losel-protective-factors/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/radicalisation/losel-protective-factors/#respond Wed, 12 Aug 2020 06:00:06 +0000 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5297 Journal abstract Extremism and radicalization towards violence are urgent topics in many countries. Numerous research projects are carried out, of which many focus on risk factors only. In contrast, this[...]

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Journal abstract

Extremism and radicalization towards violence are urgent topics in many countries. Numerous research projects are carried out, of which many focus on risk factors only. In contrast, this article contains a systematic review of the rare international research on protective factors. After screening more than 2,000 documents, we found 17 reports containing 21 analyses that specifically addressed potential protective effects and provided quantitative data. Most studies addressed religious/ethnic extremism; far-right, far-left, and mixed forms were less frequent. Thirty different protective factors showed significant effects. Many were found in single analyses, but there were various replicated factors such as self-control, adherence to law, acceptance of police legitimacy, illness, positive parenting behavior, non-violent significant others, good school achievement, non-violent peers, contact to foreigners, and a basic attachment to society. Most findings are similar to what we know from more general research on youth violence, but there are also some protective factors that seem to be more specific, particularly with regard to religious/ethnic extremism. In conclusion, it is suggested to relate the topic of extremism and violent radicalization more strongly with other fields of developmental and life course criminology. For further progress on this path, more research on protective factors and integrated theoretical concepts are needed. This will also contribute to effective prevention.

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Australian Correctional Management Practices for Terrorist Prisoners https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/thompson-australian-correctional-management/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/thompson-australian-correctional-management/#respond Mon, 10 Aug 2020 06:00:47 +0000 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5293 Journal abstract Management practices for incarcerated terrorists is an important counterterrorism policy consideration. Moreover, there is a misconception that once incarcerated, terrorists cease to be a risk. If correctional management[...]

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Journal abstract

Management practices for incarcerated terrorists is an important counterterrorism policy consideration. Moreover, there is a misconception that once incarcerated, terrorists cease to be a risk. If correctional management regimes are implemented poorly, terrorist prisoners may be afforded the opportunity to remain active while incarcerated, including the recruitment of other prisoners, and the planning of future attacks. Equally, they may be viewed as role models or martyrs for sympathisers to aspire to. Despite the magnitude of the consequences, there is no agreed approach to managing Australian terrorist prisoners. As such, a dichotomy of dominant models has emerged; that is, to either segregate terrorist prisoners, or conversely, to disperse them throughout the wider prisoner population. Each strategy presents its own set of benefits and risks. This paper compares the management practices for terrorist prisoners in the states of New South Wales and Victoria to determine the strengths and vulnerabilities of each of these approaches. The paper concludes that policy-makers should consider reassessing current strategies. It suggests that a focus that extends the immediate containment considerations to encompass post-release factors would bring benefits for society.

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Assessing threats of violence: Professional skill or common sense? https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/geurts-assessing-threats-of-violence/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/geurts-assessing-threats-of-violence/#respond Fri, 07 Aug 2020 06:00:15 +0000 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5289 Journal abstract When faced with threats of violence, it is of great importance to assess the risk for actual harm to occur. Over the last decades, this task has developed[...]

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Journal abstract

When faced with threats of violence, it is of great importance to assess the risk for actual harm to occur. Over the last decades, this task has developed into a domain of its own and professionals have specialised in threat assessment . However, it is yet unknown whether professional experience affects the quality of threat assessments. The present study examined how threat assessment professionals (N = 44), university students (N = 44), and laypersons (N = 45) assessed the risk for violence in three fictitious cases. The assessments (i.e., assigning risk values to different pieces of information) were found to be strikingly similar across the three groups. Yet, professionals agreed more with one another on their assessments, and professionals identified more relevant (empirically supported) threat cues when given the opportunity to request additional information. These results suggest that threat assessment professionals know better than nonprofessionals what information to look for, and hence, they may contribute most in the process of gathering information to clarify the threat. Such knowledge can help to optimise the use of expertise, which may improve the quality of threat assessments. The current findings can be of value to those who consult threat assessment professionals, as well as to the professionals themselves.

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The Base Rate Study: Developing Base Rates for Risk Factors and Indicators for Engagement in Violent Extremism https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/clemmow-the-base-rate-study/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/clemmow-the-base-rate-study/#respond Wed, 05 Aug 2020 06:00:31 +0000 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5284 Journal abstract Improvements have been made in identifying the prevalence of risk factors/indicators for violent extremism. A consistent problem is the lack of base rates. How to develop base rates[...]

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Journal abstract

Improvements have been made in identifying the prevalence of risk factors/indicators for violent extremism. A consistent problem is the lack of base rates. How to develop base rates is of equal concern. This study has two aims: (i) compare two methods for developing base rates; the Unmatched Count Technique (UCT) and direct questioning, (ii) generate base rates in a general population sample and compare these to a sample of lone‐actor terrorists (n = 125). We surveyed 2108 subjects from the general population. Participants were recruited from an online access panel and randomly assigned to one of three conditions; direct survey, control, or UCT. Survey items were based on a lone‐actor terrorist codebook developed from the wider literature. Direct questioning was more suitable under our study conditions where UCT resulted in deflation effects. Comparing the base rates identified a number of significant differences: (i) lone‐actor terrorists demonstrated propensity indicators related to a cognitive susceptibility, and a crime‐ and/or violence‐supportive morality more often; the general sample demonstrated protective factors more often, (ii) lone‐actor terrorists demonstrated situational indicators related to a crime‐ and/or violence‐supportive morality more often, whereas the general sample experienced situational stressors more often, (iii) lone‐actor terrorists demonstrated indicators related to exposure to extremism more often. Results suggest there are measurable differences in the prevalence of risk factors between lone‐actor terrorists and the general population. However, no single factor “predicts” violent extremism. This bears implications for our understanding of the interrelation of risk and protective factors, and for the risk assessment of violent extremism.

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Combating Violent Extremism: Voices of Former Right-Wing Extremists https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/scrivens-combating-violent-extremism/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/scrivens-combating-violent-extremism/#respond Mon, 03 Aug 2020 06:00:09 +0000 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5282 Journal abstract While it has become increasingly common for researchers, practitioners and policymakers to draw from the insights of former extremists to combat violent extremism, overlooked in this evolving space[...]

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Studies in Conflict & TerrorismJournal abstract

While it has become increasingly common for researchers, practitioners and policymakers to draw from the insights of former extremists to combat violent extremism, overlooked in this evolving space has been an in-depth look at how formers perceive such efforts. To address this gap, interviews were conducted with 10 Canadian former right-wing extremists based on a series of questions provided by 30 Canadian law enforcement officials and 10 community activists. Overall, formers suggest that combating violent extremism requires a multidimensional response, largely consisting of support from parents and families, teachers and educators, law enforcement officials, and other credible formers.

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The Prevent Duty in Education: Impact, Enactment and Implications https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/busher-the-prevent-duty/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/busher-the-prevent-duty/#respond Fri, 31 Jul 2020 06:00:35 +0000 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5272 Publisher’s description This open access book explores the enactment, impact and implications of the Prevent Duty across a range of educational contexts. In July 2015 the UK became the first[...]

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Publisher’s description

This open access book explores the enactment, impact and implications of the Prevent Duty across a range of educational contexts. In July 2015 the UK became the first country to place a specific legal requirement on those working in education to contribute to efforts to ‘prevent people from being drawn into terrorism’. Drawing on extensive research with staff, children and young people, the editors and contributors provide new insight into how this high-profile – and highly contentious – policy has shaped educational practice in Britain today. It will be a valuable resource for researchers, policymakers and others interested in the design, implementation and on-the-ground effects of Prevent or similar programmes internationally that place education at the heart of efforts to prevent or counter violent extremism.

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Lessons from September 11 about the post-conflict threat posed by foreign terrorist fighters https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/lessons-from-september-11-about-the-post-conflict-threat-posed-by-foreign-terrorist-fighters/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/lessons-from-september-11-about-the-post-conflict-threat-posed-by-foreign-terrorist-fighters/#respond Wed, 29 Jul 2020 06:00:39 +0000 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5270 Journal abstract As the Islamic State’s hold on territory was gradually diminished in Iraq and Syria, countries around the world expressed concern that the group’s large contingent of foreign terrorist[...]

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Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter TerrorismJournal abstract

As the Islamic State’s hold on territory was gradually diminished in Iraq and Syria, countries around the world expressed concern that the group’s large contingent of foreign terrorist fighters (FTFs) would return to their home countries to continue their campaign of violence. However, as time has passed and relatively few attacks have taken place, some wonder if the threat has passed. This article argues that an FTF returning directly to their country to commit an act of violence is only one way that such a threat may manifest itself, but that there are other ways that may ultimately take longer to appear. This article utilises the network of individuals responsible for carrying out the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks as a case study to demonstrate the various pathways and timeframes through which FTFs may pose a future threat. This approach reveals that, although the concern of FTFs directly returning to participate in attacks is valid, the varied and long-term ways in which FTFs may ultimately pose a threat are of equal if not greater concern.

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Reporting threats of terrorism: stigmatisation, procedural justice and policing Muslims in Australia https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/reporting-threats-of-terrorism-stigmatisation-procedural-justice-and-policing-muslims-in-australia/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/reporting-threats-of-terrorism-stigmatisation-procedural-justice-and-policing-muslims-in-australia/#respond Mon, 27 Jul 2020 06:00:28 +0000 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5268 Journal abstract The increase in Islamic-inspired terrorism on Western soil has led governments around the world to introduce new counter-terrorism laws and more intrusive police practices aimed at countering the[...]

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Policing and SocietyJournal abstract

The increase in Islamic-inspired terrorism on Western soil has led governments around the world to introduce new counter-terrorism laws and more intrusive police practices aimed at countering the threat of terrorism. This has had a profound negative impact on Muslim communities living in the West who have expressed feeling stigmatised by institutional responses to terrorism. Such feelings of stigmatisation have implications for Muslims’ willingness to work collaboratively with authorities to counter terrorism. Using survey data collected from 800 Muslims living in Australia, the current study investigates whether Muslims’ perceptions of procedural justice policing can mitigate the effect of feeling stigmatised on their willingness to report terror threats to authorities. We find that both lower levels of stigmatisation and positive perceptions of procedural justice policing are associated with Muslims’ greater willingness to report terrorism threats to police. However, we also find that procedural justice moderates the relationship between feeling stigmatised and reporting intentions. Specifically, procedural justice has a stronger positive effect on reporting intentions for those Muslims who feel more stigmatised. In other words, highly stigmatised Muslims place more salience on procedural justice when deciding whether to report information to police. The implications of these findings for theory and police practice are discussed.

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Islamist radicalisation in Italy: just A myth? https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/radicalisation/groppi-islamist-radicalisation-in-italy/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/radicalisation/groppi-islamist-radicalisation-in-italy/#respond Fri, 24 Jul 2020 06:00:17 +0000 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5266 Journal abstract Whilst Italy has yet to experience a large-scale Islamist terrorist incident, this essay challenges the claim that Islamist radicalisation in the country is a myth. On the contrary,[...]

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Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter TerrorismJournal abstract

Whilst Italy has yet to experience a large-scale Islamist terrorist incident, this essay challenges the claim that Islamist radicalisation in the country is a myth. On the contrary, factual, quantitative, and qualitative evidence indicates that radicalisation exists and, with no alarmism and social stigmatisation, should be addressed as such. In truth, Italy displays a multifaceted and decennial jihadist record. Jihadists have used Italy to acquire funds and weapons and the country has been a crossroad of renowned terrorists. Combatants have departed from Italy for theatres of jihad well before the advent of ISIS. In this regard, the Caliphate has been fairly active in Italy. There have been at least 30 cases of a terrorist-related nature since 2001, including several thwarted plots. Furthermore, field research by the author shows that extremist views justifying violence framed in religious terms have permeated certain segments of local Islamic communities where support for violence in defence of faith, Al-Qaeda, and ISIS ranges from 10% to 24%. Drawing on its empirical findings, this paper suggests a number of preventive measures with the intention of contributing to the discussion on counter-radicalisation policies and striking a proper balance between security and democratic values.

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Religion and Violence in the Horn of Africa: Trajectories of Mimetic Rivalry and Escalation between ‘Political Islam’ and the State https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/abbink-religion-and-violence/ https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/research/abbink-religion-and-violence/#respond Wed, 22 Jul 2020 06:00:58 +0000 https://www.radicalisationresearch.org/?p=5264 Journal abstract Religiously inspired violence is a global phenomenon and connects to transnational narratives, necessitating comparative analysis of socio-historical context and patterns of ideological mobilization. Northeast Africa hosts several radical-extremist[...]

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politics religion & ideologyJournal abstract

Religiously inspired violence is a global phenomenon and connects to transnational narratives, necessitating comparative analysis of socio-historical context and patterns of ideological mobilization. Northeast Africa hosts several radical-extremist and terrorist groups, mostly of Muslim persuasion, tuned in to these global narratives while connecting to local interests. Christian radicalism and violence also occur but are less ideologically consistent and less widespread. I examine key aspects of the current role and ideological self-positioning of Islamist radicalism in state contexts, comparing Somalia, affected by Islamist violence since the late 1990s, and Ethiopia, where Islam’s mobilization followed a different path and where the state so far contained politicization and open radicalism of Muslim groups. A brief contrastive case from Nigeria is also provided. It is observed that Islam, while of course not ‘equaling’ violence, easily provides a militant political theology, frequently instrumentalized in conflicts and situations of (perceived) grievance, and via mimetic rivalry then becomes radically ideological. Securitized response patterns of state authorities toward militancy play a role in furthering violent radicalization. I follow a sociological-anthropological approach but also refer to key aspects of national-legal frameworks regarding state and religion, next to societal and political bases of Muslim militant mobilization for collective aims and self-presentation.

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